Buckwheat, which is not related to wheat and other cereals, is gluten-free and can be used with other gluten-free flours in baking. The seeds of the buckwheat plant are sold either ground into flour or made into flakes.
Although buckwheat flour is naturally gluten-free it is often packaged in the same areas as gluten-containing flours so there could be a risk of cross-contamination. It is therefore recommended to choose a buckwheat product that is labelled gluten-free.
Cooking: Boil two cups of water and add buckwheat, cook at medium heat covered with lid. Remove from stove after 15-20mins. For firmer consistency add buckwheat to two cups of boiling water, cover with lid and reduce heat. Remove from stove after 15mins and leave to stand with closed lid for 10mins.
Quinoa (pronounced ‘keen-wah’) is not a grass or a grain, but is a pseudocereal which does not contain gluten. Quinoa grains are generally cooked the same way as rice and can be used in a wide range of dishes, from muesli to salads. It has a light, fluffy texture when cooked, and a mild, slightly nutty flavour.
Cooking: bring two cups of water to a boil with one cup of grain, covering at a low simmer and cooking for ~15 minutes or until the germ separates from the seed. The cooked germ looks like a tiny curl and should have a slight bite to it (like al dente pasta). As an alternative, one can use a rice cooker to prepare quinoa, treating it just like white rice (for both cooking cycle and water amounts). Quinoa can serve as a high-protein breakfast food mixed with honey, almonds, or berries; it is also sold as a dry product, much like corn flakes. Quinoa flour can be used in gluten-free baking.
There are around 60 species of amaranth, a herb which is grown in Asia and the Americas. They are not a member of the grass family and do not contain gluten.
Cooking: Bring equal volumes of amaranth and water to a boil, reduce to a simmer, cover, and cook until all water is absorbed which takes about 10-12 minutes. For a more porridge-like consistency, use a greater proportion of water. Experiment to find the texture you prefer.
Millet is a grain that does not contain gluten and therefore can be eaten by those with coeliac disease. The protein content in millet is very close to that of wheat; both provide about 11% protein by weight. Millets are rich in B vitamins, especially niacin, B6 and folic acid, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, and zinc.
Millet can be used to make porridge, flapjacks and flatbreads and can also be used in salads.
Cooking: Five measures of boiling water for each two measures of millet with some sugar or salt. The mixture is cooked covered using low flame for 30–35 minutes.
All rice, including brown, white and wild rice does not contain gluten and is suitable for a gluten-free diet. There are many varieties of rice; the main distinction is between long and medium grain rice. The grains of long grain rice tend to remain intact after cooking; medium grain rice becomes more sticky. Medium grain rice is used for sweet dishes and the famous Italian dish risotto. Raw rice may be ground into flour for many uses, and may also be made into various types of noodles. Rice flour and starch often are used in batters and breadcrumb coatings to increase crispiness. Rice may also be made into rice porridge as a breakfast meal. This is made by adding more water than usual, so that the cooked rice is saturated with water to the point that it becomes very soft, expanded, and fluffy.
Corn and corn flour do not contain gluten and can therefore be eaten as part of a gluten-free diet. However, cornflakes may contain some gluten-containing ingredients such as barley and malt - always check the packaging.